innovations in 3d printing: a 3d overview from optics to organs
3d printing is a manufacturing method in which materials (such as plastic or metal) are deposited together in layers to produce 3d objects, for example, a pair of glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with the traditional ink. A printer based on two-dimensional objects (ink on paper). Up to now, 3D printing is mainly used to manufacture engineering prototypes. However, the latest advances in printed materials now enable 3D printers to make objects comparable to traditional manufacturing items. Compared with traditional printers, 3D printing has the potential to achieve mass merchandise customization and is relevant in the medical field, including Ophthalmology. 3D printing has been shown to be feasible in several medical applications including the manufacture of glasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to revolutionize manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolution traditional printing. The application and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; Show the production process by making a set of glasses frames from a 3D blueprint. Bacon, the British philosopher, made it clear in 1620 that printing machines, firearms and navigation compasses have forever changed the world and created a modern world. Ironically, it is possible today to print guns, compasses and 3D printers in 3D. The Gutenberg printing machine can print an amazing 3500 pages a day. This has actually become the first assembly line for mass production. By 20 million of the print in 1500. Other printing techniques, including flat printing ( Stone or plate used to print the whole page) , Laser or inkjet printer ( Transfer ink to paper) And digital printing ( Transfer digital image to print surface). One common feature of all these methods is that the final image is a two-dimensional image. At the beginning of 1980, Charles Hull invented 3D printing technology, which he called stereo printing technology (STL) Or \"print\" of a continuous material layer at the top of each other to create 3D objects. STL can specify the information of the object to be printed, such as color, texture, layer thickness, etc. There are a large number of such documents in business. To demonstrate this new technology, STL files are used to \"print\" a pair of traditional glasses frames (figure 1) An unconventional multi-color regulation consisting of a layer of various shapes, angles, curves, and complex details (figure 2) A multi-layer object consisting of three independent spheres (figure 3) , 3D printer printed by 3D printer (figure 4) 3D printing demo video (figure 5). Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 3D printed eye glass frame. Download the intricate multi-color 3D print sculpture in figure 2 of the new tabDownload powerpoint. Download re-open the spheres of multiple series in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 3, which print internally from each other. Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 4 3D printer printed by the 3D printer. Download the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure5 QR code. Scan to watch the video while 3D printing. Another feature of 3D printing is economies of scale. While traditional manufacturing methods for mass production are still cheaper, the cost of 3D printing becomes more competitive for smaller production operations. NASA has just produced a fuel injector for one of their rockets at a cost of 3 and 2 Compared to traditional methods, they plan to carry 3D printers on their next space flight. 3 In addition, in 3D printing, the cost of setting- The Up is minimal and allows for high customization as the cost of the first project is the same as the last one. Therefore, 3D printing is an ideal choice for making an item at cost Effective price. For example, the use of this technology can quickly screen new potential therapeutic drugs in 3D printed patient tissues, greatly reducing production costs and time. 3D printing has many potential uses in medicine, including ophthalmology, which may have a significant impact on changing the way patients treat various diseases in the future. A number of comments have been made recently, including 3D printing and culture of cells, blood vessels and vascular networks, 4 bandages, 5 bones, 6 ears, 7 External bones, 8 trachea, 9 dental restoration bodies including jaw bone, 10 and future cornea 11 brand new organs for the treatment of specific diseases such as diabetes, create artificial limbs, stem cells that look like the parts of the body they are replacing or supporting, test new drugs using printed tissue, and tailor-made drugs. In the future, pharmaceutical companies may be replaced by a database of pharmaceutical compounds that will be sent to the pharmacy by email, so that the pharmacy prints only the number of drugs required the vaccine may be delivered to the pharmacy at the point of care by email and then printed and managed. The distribution of this drug will fundamentally change the current mode of delivery, and the cost will definitely be reduced. It is possible to print the patient\'s living tissue out as a strip in a similar way, and then it can be used as a test site for taking various drugs to find the most effective medicine to treat a specific disease is sick 13, 14 3d printing was also investigated as a potential source for repairing or replacing defective organs such as kidneys, hearts or skin. In addition, it has the potential to create new organs that will perform the same biological functions as diseases, non-diseases The functional organs of patients with diabetes, such as the pancreas. This may be a major step forward in treating diseases and alleviating the shortage of organ transplants, with about 120000 people in the United States waiting for organ transplants (see www. OPTN. transplant. hrsa. gov/data). Part of this treatment pattern is organ transplants that include finding tissue matching. If the organ can be printed and grown with the cells of the patient\'s own body, this problem may disappear. All in all, 3D printing can be medically helpful as this process may be used to make any type of organ. By using seed materials from the patient\'s own tissues, the problem of tissue rejection caused by inflammatory response can be avoided, including tissue graft from foreign tissue sources against host rejection, and the need for patients to take lifelong immune inhibitors. Proof of concept has been made, but the organs made are miniature and not complicated. 3D printing has the potential to produce new organs that are completely different from the shape of the parent organ. It can be imagined that \"liver\" or \"Pancreas\" can be produced, for example, tube-shaped organ. However, the medical impact of 3D printing is still very small at present, but it has the potential to develop into a very beneficial technology. The entire 3D printing industry is currently a $0. 7 billion industry, with an investment of only $11 million in medical applications (roughly 2%). 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