Rapid Prototyping Services, Professional manufacturer of CNC Prototyping and 3D Prototyping in China. 

Opensource Ornithopter Prototype. Arduino Powered and Remote Controlled.

by:Tuowei     2019-09-11
Hi folks!
This instruction is a story about how I made a prototype of a bird helicopter.
For those who don\'t know, the bird helicopter is a machine that can fly by flapping its wings like a real bird.
The idea is to create a bird man from scratch, control it remotely, and of course let it fly.
Please do not judge;
I am not a professional in the aircraft industry.
So, not everything works like I thought it would, but it still works.
This instruction is based on the graphic scheme, not the photo.
The real result can be more than one
A series of videos on Youtube channel.
Subscribe to the channel if you like this guide.
The directive will be corrected and supplemented over time.
Bird will also be improved.
At this moment, we can divide into the following chapters: how often, then, will birds flap their wings?
The speed of bird wings is determined by the area of wings.
For example, it is enough for a stork bird to slap its wings at a frequency of 2 times per second, a sparrow must be 13 times per second, and a hummingbird-
Up to 80 pens per second.
I want to be a big bird.
Therefore, the wing area should also be very large.
You should know the wingspan for the area of the computer wing.
Therefore, the wingspan becomes the first parameter to be selected.
I decided to make a bird with a wingspan of 1200 m --1400 mm.
I searched the internet for the existing bird helicopter design and analyzed the size.
It seems that most birds are made in rows of a particular size.
Hobby birds can be sorted by wingspan (
From 660mm to 3000mm)
And flight weight.
I have 1200 birds.
The 1400mm wingspan will be in the middle of this scale, not very large or very small.
I am looking for design information in hobby forums, bird lover specifications and various Youtube videos.
I found that birds with this wingspan should perform 5 to 7 flaps per second, with a flight weight of between 300 and 500 grams.
I chose the average flight weight-400 g.
Since I have no experience in making planes and slapping birds, I have chosen all the values based on experience, mainly hoping for luck.
Approximate beat rate (5 to 7 Hz)
I can design the flapping mechanism.
The parameters of the flapping wing are summarized: the flapping wing mechanism is the most critical part of the flapping wing.
It converts the power of the battery into the flapping motion of the wings.
This system is the most complex in design and manufacturing, because it has to withstand the tremendous force of reverse several times per second, while being very lightweight and durable.
There are many kinds of slapping institutions (Pic. 1).
This is the most commonly used one.
Staggered crank design (Pic. 2)
It is the most basic design of the flapping mechanism.
The connector rod is staggered at the measured distance and angle to ensure a symmetrical swing on the left right.
The design is favored by a fan who wants to try to make their own bird lovers with household items.
These mechanisms are usually driven by rubber bands.
Single gear crank design (Pic. 3, 4)
It looks simple, but it\'s more complicated than it looks.
The center point where the connecting rod and the wing hinge are connected to each other must be expanded and contracted as a mechanism flap.
Shrinking and expanding at a very high frequency can cause component failures.
This design has two gears, each wing hinge is controlled separately.
The design of the transmission system varies.
The pinion can drive two sub-gears at the same time (Pic. 5, 6, 7).
Therefore, the secondary gears will rotate each other in the same direction.
In different designs, the pinion rotates the sub-gear, which rotates the other sub-gear (Pic. 8).
The sub-gears will turn each other counter-clockwise.
This design is much simpler to implement and reduce the symmetrical misalignment of the wing.
Design of horizontal axis (Pic. 9, 10)
Another change in the double gear crank mechanism.
This design allows for the most symmetrical flaps.
It is, however, the heaviest and most complex design.
The rotating gear and the flapping wing are not on the same plane, so the connector rod must be able to rotate.
There is a ball bearing inside the connector rod, which will only increase the weight of the part itself.
The number of gears used in this design is more than any other design.
The horizontal axis design is usually used for large birds, and the wings of large birds can overcome the weight.
I decided to choose a design with a horizontal axis.
The size of my ornitlemter allows the use of the extra quality of the mechanism.
In addition, since the plane of the gear is parallel to the plane of the body, it is easy to make such a design by cutting the sheet material. Motor selection.
The size of the motor should be small.
The large size motor weighs a lot and the weight is critical to the design.
At the same time, the motor should be strong to provide enough torque to overcome air resistance.
In order to increase the torque and achieve the necessary swing frequency, I will use the gearbox.
In this case, I can use a weaker motor with a higher rpm per minute (rpm)value.
Considering the size of the bird, 300-
Electric hobby Motor 400 size should be very suitable.
Hobby motors of this size can be brushed or brushed.
Basically, you can find them in the media.
Large RC boat and helicopter.
I bought this (Pic. 1)
: About $12 for 1x2627 4200KV brushless outrunner motor;
Possible alternatives (Pic. 2)
: Turnigy 2627 brushless 300 in the month
About $15 4200kv;
Pay attention to important details.
You need an outrunner motor.
The mounting hole of the motor must be on the same side as the input shaft.
Therefore, the housing close to the pin must be non-movable.
Main motor features: brief label description: 1. 4 digits at the description (2627)
Motor size.
The first pair shows the diameter of the motor (26mm)
When the second pair shows the length (27mm).
The \"Kv\" value refers to the constant speed of the motor.
It is measured by the number of revolutions per minute (rpm)
When 1 V (one volt)
Applied without load on this motor.
For example, this 2627 4200Kv brushless motor can use 2 s (7. 4V)or 3S (11. 1V)power supply.
For 4200Kv values and no-load, the motor has the following speed: power supply.
In my birds, the battery is the part with the greatest weight, so it is critical to choose the right battery.
In order to power the motor, I used Li-Po battery. The capacity-to-
The mass factor of this battery is really high.
In addition, they are able to output high current values, which is very necessary for brushless motors.
There are obvious differences in weight between 2 and 3
Battery with the same capacity.
So I think it\'s better to use 2-cell battery.
I bought this (Pic. 3)
: 1 x nVision LiPo 2 s 7, 4 V 900 30C about $22 main battery features: is the maximum current of the battery sufficient.
By multiplying the discharge rate on the capacity, the maximum current value that the battery can output can be calculated: 30C * 0. 9Ah = 27 Amp.
The maximum current is greater than the value that the motor can consume (22A)so it is ok.
Capacity is also an important feature.
It affects the duration of bird flight.
However, it seems to me that it is much more important to choose the battery by weight.
Electronic speed control (ESC).
You need a controller to control and adjust the speed of the brushless motor.
ESC is suitable for any hobby.
The only thing that needs to be checked is continuous and peak current.
In order to reduce the weight of birds, it is better to choose the controller in the mini form.
This is what I have (Pic. 4)
: 1 x SWIFT 20 A speed controller about $20 possible alternative: 1 x Maytech Mini 20 A about 14 $1 x Aerostar 20 A electronic speed controller with 2A BEC (2~4S)
Main features: BEC (
Battery elimination circuit)
Is a voltage regulator that will be the main Li-
Po voltage to lower voltage (5V).
BEC is usually built into ESC and can power 5 v electronic devices without a separate battery.
My controller has a BEC voltage regulator for 5 V 2A.
If your ESC doesn\'t have such a feature, there\'s nothing terrible about it.
But if you can find a controller with BEC then be sure to buy it.
Most of the electronic components I bought at the local store, but I\'m sure you can find a possible alternative in your area.
Flight controller
I used two Arduino microcontrollers to control the birds.
Ready to buy-
Did the flight controller for the RC model, but I decided to do it myself.
Arduino is the best option in this case.
Several boards are needed.
The first is the onboard controller, which is mounted on the fuselage of the bird helicopter.
The second one is installed in the remote control.
The on-board controller should be light and compact.
I chose the Arduino Nano shape (Pic. 1)
: About 22 $1 x Arduino Nano;
I used a mock one frankly: 1 x Iskra Nano Pro = 4 $;
To reduce the size, more importantly, I removed the pin head from the board with the cutter.
For the remote control, the size of the controller is not important.
I chose the original Arduino Uno board (Pic. 2).
1 x Arduino Uno = 23 $;
The computing power of these two controllers is sufficient for the bird control task.
Wireless Module.
In order to establish a connection between the remote control and the bird helicopter, I need a receiver and a transmitter.
Both functions can be performed using these boards (Pic. 3)
: Version 2 of 2 x Mbee 868. 0 ≈ 76$;
I used two boards.
The first is the remote transmitter.
The second is the receiver on the bird catcher.
These are radio transmitters with frequencies of 863.
873 MHz, they can transmit good signals at a distance of 15 km.
Communicate with the controller module using a serial port interface. Servos.
In birds, the motor is used only for flapping wings.
To drive the bird op bird, you need two servo systems that position the tail.
A servo for attitude control (Pitch).
The second round (Roll).
These servo systems should be light and strong.
That\'s what I chose (Pic. 4):2 x HITECH HS-65MG ≈ 66$;
These are powerful and fast micro-form services.
Factors of metal gearbox.
The only downside is the very rare servo horn formatMicro 23.
In this structure, I used M23-L and M23-
X servo horn with M2 and M1, 6 screws.
These accessories are attached to the servo system.
However, you have to find a replacement or 3D if the servo horn is broken-print analogs. M23-L and M23-
The X Hitec servo horn is used for 5mm-axis, 23-tooth spline connection.
Horn size in accessories.
Possible replacement: 2 x Hitec hit90065 s hs-5065MG ≈ 70$;
2 x common sense of rc csrc-65MG ≈ 40$;
Power group module.
On the motherboard of ornitenster, all electronic devices are made by Li-
Battery via built-in Po
In the BEC 5 v 2A voltage converter on the speed controller (ESC).
But you need another power supply for the remote control.
I am using the 5 V 2000 mA power module (Pic. 5).
This is enough for the relatively long operation of the remote control. 1 x Li-
Pol Power Bank is about $22; Input modules.
These modules are installed on the console of the remote control and are driven by hand.
I\'m using a slider potentiometer (Pic. 6)
Change the speed of the motor and the frequency of the flaps.
Generate rolling and pitch parameters using the joystick module (Pic. 7).
Similar to what\'s on a real RC device. 1 x Slider (Troyka Module)≈ 6$;
1 x 3D joystick (Troyka Module)≈ 7$;
I decided to make the plate thickness of the wing aircraft of the fuselage part 2mm (Pic. 1).
These fuselage components must have a very strong structure and a lower weight.
During the development phase, I tried to make parts with different materials such as plexiglass, fiberglass, carbon fiber, etc.
To cut test parts made of plexiglass, I used CNC laser machines and CNC milling machines to cut parts made of fiberglass.
The components made of carbon fiber are the strongest.
Carbon fiber is a very durable material.
But somehow these parts get too heavy.
Besides, carbon fiber is quite expensive.
Fiberglass is the best option for me, so I recommend it.
Fiberglass parts have a good durability-to-weight ratio.
Airplane modelers use glass fiber sheets and you can find this material in the RC store.
In addition, fiberglass is the basis for circuit board production.
1x1 m size paper is enough.
Next is the list of parts required to assemble the bird helicopter according to this instruction.
The list contains the part name and the minimum necessary quality.
Some bird op parts are complex in shape and should be very accurate.
For example, large gears of many teeth.
In addition to complex shapes, some parts should also bear large loads.
For example, the wing joint must be durable enough to hold the wing Rod and resist the wind.
The custom gears in the ornitlemter gearbox have a significant rotational speed, so they should be subjected to high friction loads.
The easiest way to make them is 3D printing.
In order to achieve precision and toughness, I use nylon (polyamide)
Materials using selective laser sintering (SLS)technique.
Although this 3D printing technology is expensive, the result is worth it.
Next is a list of 3D printed parts needed to assemble a bird helicopter based on this description.
The list contains the part name and the minimum necessary quality.
Tail_joint parts do not require precision and can be made from ABS plastic using common FDM printing technology.
What might you say?
More components?
Too many =).
\"However, the design is very complicated.
As per my instructions you need more to create the same birds.
Steering servo link.
Need to turn servo link (Pic. 1)
Used in radio.
Scale control cars at 1: 10.
The link length must be adjustable.
The distance between the two ball joints you need is 43mm.
Here\'s an example: 4 x heat shock protein 02157 = $20;
This detail is cool and can be used in many ways.
For example, transfer the force from one angle.
I used four of these parts in birds.
Two of them transfer the rotational motion from the gear of the reducer to the translational motion of the bird wing.
The other two parts are at the tail of the bird helicopter and attach the fuselage to the cross
Section rod mounted on the wing.
Micro drill block.
In addition, for a 3mm shaft, you will need two small bits with 3mm sets (Pic. 2).
Usually such things are used to drill PCB holes.
Here is an example: 2x0. 5-
3mm small electric drill Collet micro twist drill chuck set about 9 $;
I fixed the cross with these collars.
Use the screw of the servo link to tie the section rod of the wing.
Later, I tried to screw the 3mm carbon fiber rod directly into the ball nest, but such a bracket has been removed.
There seems to be a lot of pressure on this place in my design. Metal gears.
Some metal gear of the gearbox (Pic. 3)
: This gear is hard to get and hard to find or replace.
These parts are a must! 8 teeth, 2.
Shaft hole 3mm, 0. 5 module (48 -50 pitch)
You need one.
I used this 12mm length: 1 x RC model metal pinion 0. 5M 2. 3mm(hole diameter)≈ 10$;
9 teeth, shaft hole 2mm, 0. 5 module (48 -50 pitch)
You need 3.
I use this: 3 x small gears 9 t (Steel/Micro)
72481 = $12 each;
Bearings and shafts.
You need some bearings (Pic. 4)
: Months x flange bearing 4mm x 9mm x 4mm month is about F684ZZ $;
3 x flange bearing 2mm x 5mm x 2.
3mm fmr52 zz = 6 $;
A stainless steel shaft with a diameter of 2mm and a length of 45mm.
You can cut it off from this: 1x2mm x 150mm stainless steel model straight metal round shaft rod about 8 $; Fasteners.
Screws: Nuts: washers and brackets: how to make a gearbox?
I\'m just explaining the design here.
The Assembly and List of gearbox components are shown in the steps below.
Look at the sketch to know the design of the gearbox.
Of course, you need some gears.
Since I use a landscape axis design, I need two endsgears (
Left and Right drive D)
It moves its wings down.
The beat frequency of my bird op bird wings is 5-
7 pens per second.
This is the speed at which these gears should rotate.
I used 2 pairs of gears to achieve the desired RPM (
File A, file B, file C, file D).
So it\'s a gearbox with two deceleration stages.
For the first gear pair (File A, file B)
The transmission ratio is 8: 72.
The second time (C file D)ratio is 9:84.
So many dental choices are determined by the small gears (gear A, gear C)
I found it in the store.
The B and D gears are made with 3D printing, so for them I can choose any number of teeth.
All gears have a module of 0. 5.
Drive Gear A is mounted on the motor shaft.
The left gear B and the right gear C are mounted rigid on the shaft.
So they have the same speed.
The total reduction is the product of the first phase of the reduction and the second phase of the reduction.
Let\'s calculate the total reduction ratio. (72 / 8)* (84 / 9)
= 9*9,333 = 84.
The total ratio is 1: 84.
If the motor is driven by 7.
4 V, drive gear A rotates 31080 rpm, or 31080/60 = 518 rpm per second.
I can find the end speed by the total deceleration ratiogears (
Left and Right drive D). 518 / 84 = 6.
16 turns per second.
This value is equal to the number of wing trips per second at 7.
4 V supply voltage and no load.
It\'s lying 5-7 range I need.
If this beat frequency is high, I will reduce the speed of the engine.
I will try to use 3 s if the voltage is low (11. 1V)battery.
Bill of Materials: look at previous steps for a list of purchased parts and information on the parts being manufactured.
Here is a list of the parts needed to assemble the gearbox. Electronics:1.
2627 4200KV brushless outrunner motor-1 piece; Metal gears:2.
Small Metal Gear (driver gear A), module 0. 5, 8 teeth -1 piece; 3.
Small Metal Gear (gear C), module 0. 5, 9 teeth -3 pieces; 3D printing:4.
Nylon gear B, module 0. 5, 72 teeth -1 piece; 5.
Nylon gear D left, module 0. 5, 84 teeth -2 pieces; 6.
Nylon gear D pair, module 0. 5, 84 teeth -2 pieces; 7.
Nylon \"base\" section2 pieces; CNC cutting:8. \"Body\" part -1 piece; 9.
Part of [side panel-2 pieces; Bearings:10.
Flange bearing 4mm inch 9mm inch 4mm F684ZZ-3 pieces; 11.
Flange bearing 2mm x 5mm x 2. 3mm FMR52ZZ -3 pieces; Metalware:12.
Metal shaft 2mm diameter 45mm length-1 piece; Screws:13. Screw M3 (
ISO 2342/ISO 4026)4mm length -4 pieces; 14. Screw M2 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)10mm length -3 pieces; 15. Screw M3 (
ISO 7045/ISO 1207)6mm length -6 pieces; 16. Screw M4 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)45mm length -1 piece; 17. Screw M3 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)25mm length -2 pieces; 18. Hex nut M4 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-1 piece; 19. Hex nut M2 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-3 pieces; 20. Hex nut M3 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-6 pieces; 21. Washer M2 (
ISO 7089/DIN 127)-3 pieces; 22.
Nylon bracket (spacer)M3x10mm -16 pieces; or M3x20mm -8 pieces;
Assembly process: look at the sketch.
They will help you to assemble.
Try to make a high
Quality of gearbox assembly.
If you are going to use some parts or assemblies that are different from mine, then you should calculate all the assembly sizes yourself.
Try rotating the motor manually.
All gears should turn smoothly without bumps and jams.
The wing can be flexible or rigid.
The flexible wing is a stretch fabric that forms a film from light Ying and tearing
Resistant to materials.
In addition, air is not allowed through the material.
The design of a rigid wing is much more complicated.
Each cross section of a rigid wing has a true aviation wing profile.
This wing requires a frame system and a precise geometry.
In addition, Bird helicopters with rigid wings are bigger and heavier than I planned to make.
So my bird wings are flexible.
The best solution is to use nylon fabric.
Nylon fabric is also known as \"rip stop \".
Special reinforcement technology makes this fabric resistant to tearing and tearing.
Nylon fabric is commonly used for sails, kites, parachutes and remote controlled hoverboards.
I drew a test sketch at the beginning (Pic. 1)
Determine what the size of the wings and tail should be.
I found a piece of blue nylon fabric (Pic. 2)
A kite repair shop in the local areaIt has 1.
5 m wide and 5 m long.
Here is an example: 1 x kite blue nylon fabric 1. 5x5m ≈ 33$;
Nylon fabric of this size is enough to make more than one pair of wings.
I am sure you can find this fabric in the local store.
The idea of RodsThe is to use nylon fabric as the main material and strengthen it with a rigid rod to create tension.
These rods are a kind of wing skeleton.
I\'m using a carbon fiber stick.
This rod is a lightweight, rigid, and very popular aircraft model.
I use rods with an outer diameter of 4mm, 3mm and 1. 5mm (Pic. 3).
It\'s better to buy a lot. 10 x 1-
It\'s enough to wear pieces of each size.
Here is an example: 4x5 pcs with a diameter of 1. 5mm 500mm 19.
Carbon fiber rods for RC aircraft60$;
4x5 pcs diameter 3mm x 500mm carbon fiber rod RC aircraft rod about 20-60$;
4x5 pcs diameter 4mm 500mm 19.
RC aircraft DIY carbon fiber rods about 20-60$;
The double sided adhesive tapeTo holds the carbon rods and I stick them to the wings with nylon strips and thin tape. I use double-
Single-sided polypropylene (PVC)
Transparent Tape with width of 19mm (Pic. 4).
Note that to follow this note, you need to find a tape with a width of exactly 19mm or 20mm, as all wing patterns are drawn for it.
In addition, it is better to use thin tape about 0. 2mm thickness.
Length 50-
100 is enough.
Here is an example of this tape: 1 x Tesa 4970 white double sided plastic tape, 19mm x 50 m, 0. 23mm ≈ 10 -20$; Sewing (Optional)
After Gluing all the rods and strips, you can sew all the joints with a line for more reliability.
So, you need a thread, needle or sewing machine.
In order to make wings and tails, you will need to cut the nylon fabric into some patches of specific shape.
The main surface of the left and right wings is a whole piece of nylon fabric.
Look at the sketch (Pic. 1)
Find out which fabric patches you need to cut.
A pattern with a true size scale of 1: 1 is in the attached PDF and dwg file.
The most important model (
The one with two wings)
Divided into two a1.
You can print out these A1 sheets separately and merge them.
0 tail patterns and patterns containing nylon stripes.
Next is a list of all the patches you need to cut.
Wings: Tail: List of materials: Here is a list of the parts needed to make the wings. Cut fabric:1. Wings patch -1 piece; 2.
Wing beam (19 x 352 mm)-2 pieces; 3.
Wing beam B (19 x 312 mm)-2 pieces; 4.
Wing Belt C (19 x 330 mm)-2 pieces; 5.
Wing Belt D (51. 5 x 613 mm)-2 pieces; 6.
Wing Belt E (38 x 100 mm)-2 pieces; 7. Spine strip A (19 x 266 mm)-2 pieces; 8. Spine strip B (19 x 97 mm)-2 pieces; 9. Spine strip C (19 x 45 mm)-2 pieces;
Carbon fiber rod: 10. 1.
5mm in diameter, 352mm in length-2 pieces; 11. 1.
5mm in diameter, 312mm in length-2 pieces; 12. 1.
5mm in diameter, 330mm in length-2 pieces; Other:13. (PVC)
Transparent Tape with width of 19mm; 14. Sewing tools;
Assembly process: look at the sketch.
They will help you to assemble.
The pattern contains all the lines and outlines you need to accurately place. Scheme 1. Scheme 2. Scheme 3. Scheme 4. Scheme 5. Scheme 6. Scheme 7. Scheme 8. Scheme 9.
The main thing you need to try to do in the manufacture of wings is to make them symmetrical.
Any behavior that deviates from symmetry will have a very, very strong impact on flight.
Material list: At this step, I attach the wing to the fuselage.
For information about the list of purchased components and the parts that are manufactured, see the previous steps.
Here is a list of the parts you need to connect your wings.
Components previously assembled: 1.
Assemble the \"body\" part with a gearbox (step 10); 2.
Assembled \"wing patch \"(step 13); 3D printing:3. wing_joint -2 pieces; CNC cutting:4. Spine_part_1 -1 piece; 5. Spine_part_2 -1 piece; 6. Spine_part_3 -1 piece; 7.
Wing_joint_part_1-4 pieces; 8.
Wing_joint_part2-2 pieces;
Carbon fiber rod: 9.
4mm in diameter, 612mm in length-2 pieces; 10.
3mm in diameter, 640mm in length-2 pieces; Bearings:11.
Flange bearing 4mm inch 9mm inch 4mm F684ZZ-4 pieces; Other:12.
Adjustable steering servo link with socket and ball nail-4 pieces; 13.
Micro drill block with Collet2 pieces; Screws: 14. Screw M3 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)25mm length -2 pieces; 15. Screw M3 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)20mm length -2 pieces; 16. Screw M3 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)10mm length -6 pieces; 17. Screw M4 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)25mm length -2 pieces; 18. Hex nut M3 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-12 pieces; 19. Hex nut M4 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-2 pieces; 20.
Nylon screw M3 (
ISO 7045/ISO 1207)8mm length -13 pieces; 21.
M3-nylon hex nut5 pieces;
Assembly process: look at the sketch.
They will help you to assemble.
Now the wings are all assembled.
You can spin the motor and see how the wings beat.
Make sure everything is kept clean and there will be no bumps and jams.
List of materials: Here is the list of parts you need to make the tail. Cut fabric:1. Tail patch -1 piece; 2.
Tail spar bar (19 x 300 mm)-2 pieces; 3.
Tail spar Bar B (19 x 280 mm)-2 pieces;
Carbon fiber rod: 4. 1.
5mm in diameter, 320mm in length-2 pieces; 5. 1.
5mm in diameter, 300mm in length-2 pieces; Other:13. (PVC)
Transparent Tape with width of 19mm; 14. Sewing tools;
Assembly process: look at the sketch.
They will help you to assemble.
The pattern contains all the lines and outlines you need to accurately place. Scheme 1. Scheme 2. Scheme 3. Scheme 4.
Material list: At this step, I connect the tail to the fuselage.
For information about the list of purchased components and the parts that are manufactured, see the previous steps.
Here is a list of the parts you need to attach the tail.
Components previously assembled: 1.
Assemble the \"body\" part with the gearbox and wing (step 14); 2.
Assembled \"tail stickers \"(step 15); Electronics:3. HITECH HS-65MG -2 pieces; 3D printing:4. Tail_joint -1 piece; CNC cutting:5. Tail_part_1 -1 piece; 6. Tail_part_2 -1 piece; 7. Tail_part_3 -1 piece; 8. Tail_part_4 -1 piece; 9. Servo_link -1 piece;
Carbon fiber rod: 10.
3mm in diameter, 209mm in length-2 pieces; Bearings:11.
Flange bearing 4mm inch 9mm inch 4mm F684ZZ-1 piece; Screws: 12. Screw M2 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)10mm length -6 pieces; 13. Screw M3 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)10mm length -1 piece; 14. Screw M4 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)16mm length -1 piece; 15. Hex nut M3 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-1 piece; 16. Hex nut M4 (
DIN 934/DIN 985)-1 piece; 17. Hex nut M2 (
DIN 934/ISO 4032)-6 pieces; 18. Washer M2 (
DIN 127/ISO 7089)-6 pieces; 19. Hex nut M2,5 (
DIN 934/ISO 4032)-1 piece; 20. Screw M2,5 (
DIN 912/ISO 4762)10mm length -1 piece;
Servo screws and horns21. M23-X servo horn; 22. M23-L servo horn; 23.
M2 x4 servo horn screw; 24.
M1, 6x7, servo horn screw; 25. Servo sleeve;
Assembly process: look at the sketch.
They will help you to assemble.
Check all servo mechanisms after assembly.
Move the tail up and down manually.
Try to file the smallest friction.
The fabric should stretch on the tail!
If you make it drooping, add another edge as shown in figure 6. XOD libraries.
To program the Arduino controller, I used the XOD visual programming environment.
If you\'re new to electrical engineering or you want to write simple programs for Arduino controllers like me, try XOD.
It is an ideal tool for rapid equipment prototyping.
I made some XOD libraries for programming: This library is used to program the usual hobby ESC devices.
The library contains Program patches for onboard and remote-controlled electronic devices.
This library is used to establish a wireless connection between birds and remote controls.
In order to transfer the data, I wrote a simple protocol that exchanges bytes asynchronously.
Protocol with starting bytes and checksum.
Using such a protocol can help you eliminate data loss.
Birds will only operate according to clear instructions.
Read more: simple asynchronous communication protocol in XODProcess.
Before using ESC, it should be adjusted to work with the motor and controller.
The firmware on ESC is different, but the library should help you anyway.
There are two ways here.
If the first one doesn\'t work then try the second one.
Calibrate ESC with a button.
This method should be suitable for most hobby ESC.
Calibrate ESC with slider.
This method is useful if your ESC device needs a specific signal sequence to set the speed range.
Initially, this was done using the real RC of the model.
This is an example of a sequence: Most ESC devices are controlled as regular amateur servo by PWM signals MS from 1000 to 2000.
You can easily re-
Create the desired sequence with the slider of the potentiometer.
Assemble two charts as shown in the scheme.
This step will not bring you any difficulties.
Here are some key points: I got these key points after welding the onboard parts (Pic. 3).
After welding, connect all the electronic equipment to the fuselage.
You can fix everything on your body with tape.
The most important thing is to grasp the quality center.
For this bird, it should be at a specific point (Pic. 1).
One more important thing.
In a neutral position, the tail should be raised slightly to the plane of the wings, about 10-20 degrees (Pic. 2).
All in all, I can say that the design of birds is still original.
In many places, such as the connection of the servo Horn, there is a problem.
The plan still needs to be improved.
If you have any suggestions or suggestions, please write in the comments =). Idea.
I will not explain the whole programming process, but I will tell you the key features.
In fact, it\'s easy to understand to see the above patch (Pic. 1, 2).
The radio module I use is submitted to their controller via an asynchronous interface.
So here\'s an idea: Patch the remote control and open the remote controlcontrol patch (Pic. 1)
Library from gabbobble/ornitenster XOD.
Function: on-board controller patch open on-board patch (Pic. 2)
Library from gabbobble/ornitenster XOD.
Custom message
Chat Online
Chat Online
Chat Online inputting...