why leonardo da vinciâx80x99s brilliance endures, 500 years after his deathwhy leonardo da vinciâx80x99s brilliance endures, 500 years after his death
For a moment, anything I have experienced has been different for centuries.
I came to Windsor Castle to watch the Queen\'s collection of Leonardo da Vinci paintings.
Tourists take selfies outside the towering stone walls and look for souvenir tea towels.
Inside, Leonardo walked through an arched gate decorated by Gargos and led me back to the Renaissance.
I could almost hear the artist whispering as I stared at a leather album bound in the 1500 s in the castle\'s solemn print room.
Decorated with two rolls of goldand-a-half-inch spine.
This cover, dyed and worn without knowing the fingerprints of the past generations, is as follows: Disegni di Ducati da Vinci Paoni (
Painting by Leonardo da Vinci protected by Pompey Leoni).
No one knows exactly how the album arrived in the UK, but its source is unambiguous: Italian sculptor Leoni, obtained the paintings of Leonardo from the son of the artist\'s loyal student, Francesco Melzi, and installed them into at least two volumes.
By 1690, as it knows, the Leonid binding has landed in the Royal Collection, with 234 open-minded and the Curious Mind of the Leonid.
As listed by Martin Clayton, head of printmaking and painting at the Royal Collection Trust Foundation, has now been divided into 60 boxes, and the scope of the Leonardo theme has expanded rapidly: botany, geology, hydraulics, architecture, military engineering, garment design, geometry, drawing, optics, anatomy.
He uses ink, chalk and silver dots to explore the mysteries of the universe and make the unknown meaningful.
These paintings are amazing in their wake.
The smallest, smaller piece than the thumb, shows the female torso induced in several soft strokes.
The most iconic, gently rendered with red chalk and curved incubation marks, depicts a fetus curled up in the womb.
Everything is tested with visual precision: Research on Madonna clothing
Mortar bombing Fort;
Shadow and shadow;
A skull, a heart, 1 feet, scans the human face from the light of Leida to the deformed features of an old man.
Clayton says the biggest gain you get from some of Leonardo\'s drawings is this completely unrestricted way of jumping between topics.
It\'s very exciting to see a mind working in such a wide way.
A note of natural curiosityRecipient and truth
Leonardo, who pursues knowledge, is hungry. His to-
The Do list includes jottings with \"build glasses\" to watch the moon larger and describe the reason why he laughs while seeking answers to a range of questions: what is the distance from the eyebrows to the junction of the lips and chin?
Why are stars visible at night, not during the day?
How does the branch of a tree compare to the thickness of the trunk?
What is the difference between water and air?
Where is the soul?
What is sneezing, yawning, hunger, thirst and desire?
Although his paintings are well known, Leonardo\'s rich manuscripts and paintings reveal the inner workings of his genius.
His fertile thoughts-the various assumptions he tested, the intellectual, scientific and philosophical journey he initiated-on 7,000 sheets of paper preserved in Windsor, in the Library of Paris, London, Madrid, every Turin and Milan, and the private collection of Bill Gates.
Photos taken by Paul Woods and Gabriel galingbeton with permission from the Italian Ministry of Cultural assets and activities as an event this year to mark the 500 th anniversary of the death of Leonardo, the artist\'s
The museum is displaying his sketch works, and scholars are also publishing new analysis to conduct more in-depth research on his creation.
Most notably, the page on Leonardo\'s Notebook is falling into the hands of experts in the field of Leonardo research, from medicine, mechanical engineering to music.
As early as a few centuries ago, they gained new insights, explored the work of Leonardo, and provided information for their work.
Even if science, medicine and technology have gone beyond the boundaries of what we can do and how we can do it, Leonardo\'s laptop reveals how much more we need to learn.
In the words of artistic historian and Leonardo scholar Martin Kemp: his predecessor or contemporaries did not produce anything similar in terms of scope, speculative splendor, and visual intensity.
We know that nothing is truly comparable in the coming centuries.
Leonardo was born in April 15, 1452, near Da Vinci, a hill town in the Tuscan countryside landscape between Florence and Pisa.
Many people think his mother is Caterina di Lippi, a local farmer.
His father, Sir Piero da Vinci, had a high status as a noble. If Leonardo was not born outside of marriage, he should have taken this career path.
The city provides an inspiring backdrop for a boy with a wide vision.
From the terrace on top of Villa 12
Century castle, the Tuscan landscape shows itself today, as in the youth of Leonardo: The Olive Garden, the dim hills, and the mountains near the west coast of Italy.
In Leonardo da Vinci, this landscape is known as orizzonti geniali, or \"genius vision\", says Stefania Marvogli of the Leona di Museum, which is Leonardo and his childhood.
The patchwork of different terrain forms a coherent whole that reflects the connection Leonardo seeks in nature: the pattern of unifying the universe.
Little is known about Leonardo\'s childhood.
The record shows that he and his grandparents lived in da Vinci, where he received primary education.
At some point in Leonard\'s adolescence, his father may have recognized his artistic ability and presented his paintings to the client-artist Andrea Del Velocio,
From the beginning, Leonardo went above and beyond his peers and his mentor, who worked with them to create religious paintings and bronze balls on the top of brunelski\'s dome.
Leonardo\'s first independent work known as a penand-
The ink landscape of the Arno Valley dates back to 1473 of his age 21.
Within a few years, he received his first entrustment: an altar for a church in the Palace of sinoria and a group of Augustinian monks worshiping magic.
Leonardo did not leave his personal memory, but we saw the dawn of this man.
His lifelong partner is almost certainly male, and he has been charged with sodomy twice, although both cases have been dropped.
He is an animal lover, bought the birds in cages in the market and released them. Left-
He is handsome, wearing roses.
He was admired for his singing, generous spirit and social skills.
Gary Radek, honorary professor of art history at Syracuse University, said he would be a very interesting dinner guest.
He is not one of these incredible, thoughtful, complaining geniuses.
In his 46-
Leonardo, who spent a year in Florence and Milan, pinned his will on knowledge and was moved by a wandering eye and determination to follow it.
He studied Latin, collected poetry, and read Euclid and Archimedes.
Where others embrace perceptible, he carefully examines the geometric angle of detail, the expansion of the pupil from one subject to the next, while looking for the connection between them.
He drew sketches of flowers and flying machines, designed war machines for his patron, Duke rudovico Sforza, made theater decorations with peacock feathers, and designed
Leonardo\'s neat notes written in the mirror script on the back and corner of the paper record all the details, from right to left.
Some of these pages are loose today;
Others have been bound to a volume now known as a notebook or dictionary.
Even on one page, there is no clear order, and similar topics often appear on different pieces of paper many years apart.
Â x80©Paolo Galluzzi told me that all of this made it difficult for scholars to keep up with the brisk pace in his head, and he gave a thumbs up and copied leonardo notebooks\'s notebook with a sense of surprise.
Every time he observes, there is a problem in his mind that always causes another problem, says Galluzzi, curator of the Galileo Museum in Florence.
He passed by sideways.
Learn more about Leonardo\'s unique style of painting.
It is difficult to understand Leonardo\'s unparalleled ability to push past work to his ancestors.
Examine his subjects and overturn his own judgment.
In the Leicester code, Leonardo investigated how the water reached the top of the mountain and finally rejected his original belief that the heat would pull it up.
Instead, he realized that water was circulating through evaporation, clouds and rain.
Biographer Walter Isaacson says it\'s more important than finding out how mountain creek works to find out how you\'ll find it.
He helped to invent scientific methods.
For Leonardo, the precepts, observations, assumptions, and experiments of science are essential to art.
Francesca fiolani, vice president of the School of Arts and Humanities at the University of Virginia, said he was swinging between the two areas, learning from one area and telling the other.
Her greatest talent, she says, is the ability to make knowledge visible.
His power is there.
This is more vivid than Leonardo\'s anatomy study.
He dissect the human body, sort out the underlying muscle tissue from three dimensions, and personally see how a leg is bent, or the cradle of the arm.
The Contemporaries of Leonardo, including his rival, Michelle Angelo Giro, studied muscles and bones to improve their artistic performance of the human body.
But Leonardo goes beyond that, says Roman-based scientific historian Domenico Laurenza.
His method of anatomy is the real anatomy.
Leonardo\'s scientific data collected on his notebook is the basis of every stroke of his brush.
His anatomy studies have gained insight into the biology of facial expressions.
Which nerve would make you frown, or use the lips pou mouth, smile, surprise?
He asked in his notes.
His analysis of light and shadow enables him to illuminate the outline with incomparable subtleties.
He removed the traditional contours, but softened the edges of graphics and objects in a technology known as sfumato.
Optics and geometry lead to a complex sense of perspective, such as the Last Supper.
Keen observation allowed him to paint the depth of emotion in the person he painted, and they looked emotional, not stiff.
However, there is a price for Leonardo\'s invention.
He was constantly delaying, upsetting his customers, and many of his work was not done, including magic worship.
The scholar attributed this to his enthusiasm for the new discipline and his perfectionism.
This is also because the challenge of doing things exceeds the expectation of completing it.
For Leonardo, it\'s all about the process, says Carmen banbach, curator of painting and printmaking at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
This is not the real ending.
In fact, the more knowledge Leonardo gained through research on his notebook, the harder his art will be to see the finish line.
He explains that as he continues to paint, he understands that you can create such a tiny tone level and transition from the highest, strongest highlights to the deepest shadows. âx80x9d X-
The ray analysis of Leonardo\'s work reveals a large number of revisions, known as pentimenti.
Infinity becomes a very real concept with practical implications: there is always more to learn.
In many ways, intellectually, it\'s a never-ending process, she says.
This may explain why Leonardo has never published his notebook.
He intends to complete papers in many disciplines including geology and anatomy.
Instead, his sketches and manuscripts were left to Melzi, his faithful companion, to sort them out.
In the decades after Leonardo\'s death,Three to three
His first few pages are likely to be stolen or lost.
Until the end of the 18 th century, more than 200 years after his death, most of the surviving pages began to be published.
Therefore, Lauren za said that as a scientist, we know very little about the legacy of Leonardo.
Leonardo\'s inquiries, statements and findings were entrusted to those who followed.
We are still chasing him a few centuries later.
Today, the legacy of Leonardo\'s Notebook is obvious. J.
When Calvin Coffey, chairman of the surgical foundation of the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Limerick, Ireland, conducted a study a few years ago, he made an amazing discovery: Leonardo\'s observation, about 1508, confirmed the theory he was trying to verify.
Coffey is a fan of Research --
Connect the small intestine and large intestine to the shape structure of the posterior wall of the abdomen.
Since the publication of Grady anatomy in 1858 (
Then called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical)
The students were taught that the system consists of several separate structures.
But while more and more colorectal surgery is underway, Coffey is beginning to suspect that the membrane is a continuous organ.
When he and his colleagues proved this hypothesis in terms of structural anatomy, Coffey discovered a painting by Leonardo depicting an uninterrupted structure.
Coffey clearly remembers that moment.
At first he took a look and turned and left.
Then he looked at it again.
\'I was very surprised by what I saw,\' he said.
It\'s all about what we see.
It\'s just an absolute masterpiece.
In an overview of his team\'s findings published in 2015, Coffey included the painting of Leonardo and credited his name in the text: \"We now know da
Coffey presented a sketch slide of Leonardo in his scientific presentation, marveling at his ability to fully dissect organs, a feat complicated by the complex layering of structures.
Coffey said he was very honest with the explanation of nature and biology.
Even today, you will have a surgeon who will not be able to replicate what he has done.
Leonardo\'s vision is driven by his enduring belief in natural design, whether it\'s roots or hippos.
He wrote that human ingenuity will never design an invention that is more beautiful, simpler and more purposeful than nature;
Because in her invention, there is nothing that is wanted, nothing that is superfluous.
Every artery, every tissue, every organ exists for one purpose, and this discovery changes the career of Francis Charles Wells.
Wells, senior cardiac surgeon at Royal pavos Hospital, Cambridge, UK, held an exhibition of Leonardo\'s anatomy paintings at the Royal Academy of Art near Piccadilly, London, on 1977.
The registration fee is one pound;
An immeasurable return.
That surprised me, he said.
Wells was shocked by the scope of the artist\'s investigation.
After an autopsy of 100-year-
Old man, Leonardo described the disease for the first time in medical history.
He wrote that the coat on board worked on people like an orange, because the Peel became thicker, so the pulp would decrease as the age grew.
His research on the heart valve, as well as his major in the heart valve, is equally prescient.
To understand how they work, Leonardo designed a glass model of the aortic valve membrane filled with water and grass seeds, allowing him to conceptualize the flow pattern and how the valve was turned on and off, the details were finally confirmed in 1960.
Most importantly, Leonardo\'s sketches open the eyes for the structure of the heart and the delicate logic of the machinery, not only the appearance of the organ, but also the reason for its evolution.
One autumn morning, Wells stood above a patient\'s chest in his Papworth operating room and approached me. âx80x9cSee it?
He pointed to the valve and said it was amazing.
Think about the complexity that the body has to go through in order to make this valve.
Wells\'s surgical approach follows the motto he learned from Leonardo: every part of the complex structure of valwells should be there, designed to maintain the force it bears.
This fundamentally shapes the way Wells fix faulty valves.
Did you see the little thing in my tweezers?
This is the cracked cord, he said.
This is the root of the problem.
Wells has the option to remove the entire valve and replace it with an artificial model, which many surgeons like.
Instead, I watched him take pains to replace each wire with Gore
Tex stitching, retain the original structure as much as possible.
Leonardo could not predict the method of surgery, but he taught Wells to observe carefully, to stop and think, and to fully accept valve\'s inner and skilled ability to work, wells tries to maintain this ability in every heart surgery he does.
Wells says it\'s a paradigm shift, he\'s in 256-
A place far away from the mainland, copies of leonardo Codex from bird flight have penetrated into Stanford\'s creatures
Inspiring research and design (BIRD)
David Lentink, a biologist and mechanical engineer.
When I visited, Lentink handed me a piece of paper with the question that Leonardo and his 10 graduate students were still trying to answer: How did the movement of the wing in the air generate thrust?
How does the bird\'s muscles control the flapping of wings?
How do birds glide?
All his questions are still relevant, says Lentink ink.
Lentink and his team can get into high-
Technology tools that Leonardo couldn\'t even think.
Sensors and high
Speed Photography enables them to measure the rising power of birds in flight. A nearly six-foot-
The long test section of Lentink\'s custom designed wind tunnel simulates smooth air and turbulence, providing clues about how bird wings change shape in completely different wind conditions.
One of the most prominent projects in the laboratory is a mechanical bird called PigeonBot, which has feather wings made by Laura matlov and radio control systems operated by graduate student Eric Zhang.
Matloff uses x.
A ray microscope capable of measuring one
One millionth of 1 m to determine the characteristic of the surface of the feather and the interaction between the adjacent feathers.
The skeleton and pin joints connecting the feathers are made on a 3D printer.
PigeonBot is equipped with accelerometer, gyro, barometer, wind speed sensor, GPS, compass and radio transceiver that transmit flight information to the laptop.
One cloudy morning, I met the couple in the hills and bushes near Stanford for a test flight.
As often said, ready!
Matloff pushes the robot into the air;
We watched it fly at 10 metres per second until Chang brought it in and landed.
Just for the show.
Reverse engineering of birds allows scientists to study Flight Mechanics step by stepby-
Step by step process to better understand the function of each body part, which Leonardo could not do.
One day, modern engineering may return Leonardo\'s strong curiosity with the answers to the mysterious things he pursues.
\"I think we will get there,\" Lentink said . \".
Just as Leonardo\'s laptops are full of clarity, they also contain more tentative thoughts that may flash.
The drawings contained in the Atlantic transcript and several smaller notebooks prompted an investigation by Polish pianist Soi avamir zubraiski.
He was eager to hear the music of Leonardo.
Among his many pursuits, Leonardo improvised the melody in lire dabasio during the Renaissance --
He studied the complexity of Acoustics and Music design in his notebook.
In 2009, Zubrzycki found himself stunned by a sketch of viola organ, a keyboard instrument with curved strings.
Zubrzycki was fascinated by the possibility of an instrument blending two musical families, and he began to build it.
The drawings of Leonardo did not provide a detailed blueprint.
For four years, Zubrzycki spent five hours a day researching and designing his designs.
He tested the wood samples and decided he needed 61 keys and was confused about how to make four round bows on the horse hair that could rub the strings to create music.
When he revived the instrument, zubuzki used the same vitality: his imagination.
The result was spectacular.
Zubrzycki organs painted in vivid blue, inside Red, elegantly made the viola organista combines, combined with the multi-sound energy of the keyboard, allowing it to be used in the once slot
In terms of music, as in other ways, Leonardo has never been satisfied with this norm.
He is interested in finding the next possible sexy, said zubrezycki.
One summer night, he sat down in a formal vest and polished black shoes to play a Renaissance concert at Kalma Castle on the southern coast of Sweden.
Although his viola looks like a small piano, it plays like a complete piano.
Sound string ensemble.
The loud and happy voice, whose rich complexity evokes the glow of Leonardo\'s paintings, is a musical sfumato with soft edges and lingering tones.
Leonardo placed music in second place in painting, even higher than sculpture, and described music as \"invisible things \".
In addition to the audience of zumbrezki, when the sun began to fall in the Baltic Sea, such a lofty moment occurred in the castle, and some graffiti on Leonardo\'s Notebook became music.
Swedish Renaissance musicians ute GoldK and Per Mattsson were impressed and moved by the performance of zubridge.
Leonardo would be happy to see someone take his idea to the next stage, Godek said, and make something real out of it.
In the fall of 1516, the last attempt of Leon Nardo took him to Amboise in France, and the enthusiastic admirer, King Francis I, offered him allowances and freedom to create as he wished
Leonardo, 64, moved into an ordinary Castle, now known as closlek, with many of his paintings and three of his paintings that he had never separated from St. John the Baptist, the Virgin and children are with St. Anne, Mona and Mona Lisa.
Leonardo can see the King\'s Castle from the bedroom window.
Outside, the colors and lights of the Loire Valley set the scene of his childhood.
In the years of Closs Lucerne, Leonardo designed the hydraulic system for the kingdom, drafted plans for the new royal residence, and held a happy celebration for the King.
He had a simple pleasure in all this: he drank soup.
In May 2, 1519, before the death of Leonardo, 67, he completed a series of pictures depicting the flood, depicting a huge storm.
The rambling swirls, mostly carried out with black chalk, surge with urgency and confusion.
Finally, Leonardo, as always, looked to nature.
Today, Closs Luce is a living monument to Leonardo, located in a huge park filled with the Saints and other plants painted by Leonardo.
The children play on the parabolic swing bridge.
Like armored tanks derived from leonardo notebooks\'s notebook.
On a sunny day, the director of Clos luéluc, Francois Saint-Brie, said he hoped that the place Leonardo spent in the last few years would inspire the next generation.
This is the common goal of many people.
The new research provides material for future scholars.
Laurenza and Kemp collaborated on a new analysis of the Leicester code, suggesting that it may have affected the birth of modern geology.
After more than 20 years of meticulous research into the life and work of leonnardo, Mehta banbach published a 4
Da Vinci rediscovered the volume.
Leonardo\'s laptop is also opening up to the public.
Galluzzi is the leader of the elegant searchable database of Codex atlan, the largest laptop.
Isaacson envisions that one day, all of this will be fully translated and digitized by an international consortium.
Then we will see him in all the glory of Leonardo, he said.
Like Leonardo\'s never-ending pursuit of knowledge, his notebook is ready for rediscovery and future generations.
Kemp said that I always thought that I had finished working with Leonardo and that he had studied and written about him for 50 years.
He kept coming back.