robert the bruce had leprosy: 3d scanning reveals diseased face of 700-year-old father of scottish independence
Scientists scanned Robert Bruce\'s skull in 3D to photograph how he looked during the 14 th century Scottish rule.
A photo depicts the king in his golden age as a muscular neck and a strong male with a strong frame.
But his second picture shows that he may also have signs of weakness, and signs of leprosy damage his upper jaw and nose.
From 1306 to 1329, Robert Bruce was King of Scotland, aged 55.
He launched a war to weaken his Scottish rival and British regime in Scotland, culminating in the battle of Bannock in 1314.
The new image of the hero King was created by the University of Glasgow historian and the skull facial expert of Liverpool John Moore University (LJMU).
Professor Caroline Wilkinson, director of face laboratory and world at LJMU-
The famous cranial facial recognition expert performed facial reconstruction by first doing a 3D scan of what is believed to be his skull.
The skull was excavated from the temple of dunfeilin in FAFU between 1818 and 1819.
The King\'s facial structure was made using a 3D reproduction process called \"stereo sound imaging.
\"Using skull castings, we can accurately determine the formation of muscles from the position of the skull to determine the shape and structure of the face,\" Professor Wilkinson said . \" He is also responsible for the face reconstruction of Richard III.
However, what the reconstruction cannot show is the color of his eyes, the color of his skin and the color of his hair.
\"We made two versions-one without leprosy and one with slight leprosy performance.
\"He may have had leprosy, but if he had it, it is likely that there is no apparent performance on his face, as it is not on the record.
\"A picture shows that he is in prime time with a huge and powerful male head.
The researchers say this will be supported by a muscular neck and a strong frame.
It also shows that he is a privileged individual with a first interest. class diet.
The researchers said his physique would adapt him to the brutal demands of the medieval war.
But he may also have signs of leprosy that disfigured his upper jaw and nose, so the researchers made a second version for that.
This is because historians believe that Bruce suffered several diseases that affected him during his reign and could lead to his death.
For example, in Ulster, in 1327, he was said to be very weak and could only move his tongue.
In his own time, there was no reliable visual depiction of Robert Bruce, and the written record did not tell us his appearance.
DNA will provide another way to build hair and eye color-but there is a problem.
The skull was discovered in 1818.
Dr. Martin McGregor of the University of Glasgow said it was a tomb at the dunferin Abbey, Scotland\'s medieval monarch mausoleum.
After excavation, the original skeleton and skull were sealed in the asphalt and re-buried, but not before the head was cast.
\"Several replicas of the actor exist, including the one that is now in Hunter, but without the original bones, we have no DNA.
\"The Hunter also has a toe --
It is said that the bones came from the same grave and did not return to the grave.
\"We were hoping to get DNA from here and test one of Bruce\'s living offspring, but in the process the bones could be destroyed.
Professor Wilkinson added: \"Without any DNA, we rely on Dr. McGregor and his team to conduct a statistical assessment of the probability of certain hair and eye colors, to determine that Robert Bruce is most likely to have brown hair and light brown eyes.
\"Since describing the Scottish hero before, there have also been some advances in facial reconstruction techniques, including better facial feature prediction and more advanced CGI.
\"This is the most realistic look of Robert Bruce --
Date, based on all available bones and historical materials.