4-d printing means building things that build themselves
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Printing brings a lot of innovations worth reporting.
Just by depositing different kinds of ink on one layer after another, the printer creates fake hands, Action maps, food and even blood vessels.
Now, some engineers around the world are trying to push the boundaries further --
By printing objects that can be built by themselves. It\'s called 4-
D print, in this case, the fourth dimension is time.
How it works: a 3-
D printers with extremely high resolution use materials that can react to external stimuli, such as heat or light, as ink.
After printing, the final structure can be changed, moved or even assembled.
A research group led by H.
Jerry Qi, associate professor at the University of Colorado Boulder, is using heat and mechanical pressure to convert flat objects into three-
They printed an expanded box with glass polymer fiber.
Composite material with \"shape memory behavior-
Along the folds.
They heat it, pull it to the side to cool it, and the flat structure responds by folding it into a box. Another team —
Cooperation between the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Illinois at Urbana
Champagne and Harvard
Recently received $855,000 in funding from the United States. S.
The Army Research Office that explores how adaptive materials respond to stimuli such as light or temperature.
Professor Anna Ballas of Pittsburgh says it\'s no different from how the body works.
It constantly responds to the world around it in a complex way.
\"The idea is to use 3-
\"Print,\" she said.
It allows complex objects to deform their structures.
Not only do you have to print an object, a purpose.
\"A potential application?
You can make a fabric, change the color according to the light, or change the penetration rate according to the temperature.
It can provide a protective layer in the presence of toxic chemicals
This is especially useful for soldiers in combat.
Qi says another application is useful where traditional manufacturing is impractical --like in space.
You can make a small flat instrument and expand it on a spaceship.
You can\'t make these products at home, at least not yet.
The printer and responsive ink are still being tested by various academic laboratories.
For reliable commercial use, it may take three to five years to combine the two, Balazs said.
Prior to this, some researchers will continue to work hard to bring technology to a new level.
Skyler Tibbits, research from
Assembly at MIT is working on how to simplify the construction process by using materials that respond to vibrations
His ideal is lofty, but he can say 4-
Printing Research so far.
In an interview with the BBC in July, he said: \"manufacturing may be more like growth . \"
\"Maybe in the future, we will play Beethoven\'s works and build our own buildings.